The CSP (Cased Secant Piles) system has been developed for the execution of secant piles to form a continuous diaphragm wall.
The CAP (Cased Augered Piles) system has been developed for the execution of «berlinese» type wall.
The FoW (Front of the Wall) system has been developed for drilling in fornt of the wall. The execution of a conventional diaphragm wall by using grabs and bentonite mud involves a series of problems:
— large bentonite mud plant for the preparation, storage and de-sanding process, in many cases not acceptable to operate in restricted urban areas;
— general cleaning operations in the working area;
— transit of trucks loaded with soil polluted by bentonite mud;
— disposal of waste material.
The CSP/CAP system has been therefore developed to:
— Excavate the piles without bentonite mud in each kind of soil, also in presence of water table;
— Guarantee a deviation from verticality less than 1% — 1.5%;
— Minimize the job site installation plant;
— Operate in restricted areas;
— Reduce the execution time of the pile by using a double rotary equipment;
— No need of service crane.